Search results

'펌글'에 해당하는 글들

  1. 2008.08.21  싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기
  2. 2008.08.21  m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기
  3. 2006.12.11  How to Study
  4. 2006.12.11  How to Perform Better on Tests
  5. 2006.12.11  How to Manage Your Time
  6. 2006.12.11  How to Learn in Class
핸드폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하자..

인터넷이 안되니.. 이가 없으면 잇몸으로..

출처 : http://www.cyon.co.kr/good/cs/modem_setup/install_guide.html
http://www.cyon.co.kr/good/cs/dialup_setup/install_guide.html
























 

















































 

출처 : http://www.cyon.co.kr/good/cs/modem_setup/install_guide.html
http://www.cyon.co.kr/good/cs/dialup_setup/install_guide.html


'펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11
출처 : http://www.mymits.net/zboard/zboard.php?id=lecture&page=10&no=1932
사용자 삽입 이미지

출처 : http://www.mymits.net/zboard/zboard.php?id=lecture&page=10&no=1932

'펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11
─ tag  M4650, m4655, 무선모뎀

How to Study



Most freshmen think about studying often. They talk about it, complain about it, procrastinate about it. They religiously take their books home on the weekend, or to the park, or to a friend's place. They promise themselves that they will study after the party or after the movie. Do they study? Well, sometimes, but rarely is it effective, because most freshmen believe that memorizing is enough. Memorizing at the last minute (or cramming) is the most popular form of freshman studying. No wonder that 40 percent fail.
      Understanding, not memory, is the foundation of college learning. The trick is to study to understand, then memorize what is important. The place to begin to understand is the textbook. Studying is different from reading. We read the newspaper, a recipe, a novel. The purpose is usually to acquire information or to be entertained. To study is to apply the mind so as to acquire understanding and knowledge.
      The first type of study is learning from your textbook. Studying a textbook is a careful and thoughtful process. At the beginning of the semester, examine your text just as you would examine any new tool. How are the chapters organized? Are they grouped into units with introductions? What is the structure of each chapter? Do they contain case studies, summaries, introductory outlines, boxed inserts, graphs and charts, problems, questions? What appendices exist? Is there a glossary (a dictionary of terms used in the book), index, background information (science books often contain an explanation of the scientific method, and government books contain the Constitution, and so on)? If a study guide exists for the text, buy it; it is worth every dollar.
      Be sensible about where, when, and how you study. Study first, then party, rather than the other way around. Study during the day if possible (the soaps will still be there on holidays). Turn the television off. Sit at a table or desk. Use a good light. Music is okay if the volume is low. Schedule specific times to study, just as if you were going to work. Study at a high energy time because effective studying is hard work and you will need all the energy you can get.
Back To Top
Textbook Study

      Chapters are the normal units of textbooks. Although you may spend several sittings studying a chapter, it is best to consider each one as a whole. To study a chapter effectively you will have to go through it several times. The first step is to look over the entire chapter. Read the main headings and the summary if there is one. Think about the two or three main ideas that this chapter is about. Say them aloud or write them down. You may want to phrase them as questions. These ideas will form the foundation of what you will learn, and they will be the primary method by which you will remember the information in the chapter.
      Most modern textbooks are partitioned into sections and subsections. This deliberate structure helps you to learn, for as you acquire new ideas and information you need to store them in your memory. Research tells us that items stored at random are hard to remember, but ideas and items stored on the basis of their meaning and context are much easier to remember. Thus, understand the material first; then work to remember it.
      As you study each section, do the following: read the heading and look for the primary idea about the heading in the first or second paragraph. When you find it, mark it by underlining or highlighting. Then read the first subsection without marking anything. Stop and think. What in that subsection is important about the primary idea? You may find one or two or three items to mark, but be selective, for if you mark too much, the markings are useless. Work your way through each subsection, back and forth, reading... thinking... marking. As you work, be sure to look over any charts, graphs, or boxed inserts. They can help you understand the ideas. Work for fifteen to twenty minutes and then get up and take a five-minute break. Then back to work.
      If text material is especially difficult, make an outline of the section. If there is new vocabulary, make flash cards (?la grade school) with the word on one side and the definition on the other. Flash cards also work for identifications and grouped items (types, characteristics). Carry them in your purse or pocket and practice them several times a day. If you are lucky enough to have a study guide for the text (a call to your college bookstore will tell you if one is in print), use it to organize your efforts by going back and forth between the guide and the text.
      The end result of a productive study session is twofold: you have an understanding of the main ideas of the text reading, and you have a marked text that will help you prepare for exams. The markings are yours, your choices; that is why it is useful to buy unmarked texts. Other people's decisions will not help you.
      If you have read this far and are fairly intimidated by these suggestions, take heart; you can learn how to study. Most high school students rarely read their texts, and few if any study them. One of the hardest adjustments most college freshmen must make is learning to study their textbooks because it is a new behavior. It will take many false starts and miscalculations, but with practice you can learn. You will not only get better with practice, you will get faster.
Back To Top
Reading Difficulties

      If you are a competent reader and simply out of practice, the practical suggestions above should improve your reading effectiveness within 45 days. However, there are three kinds of reading difficulties that are much more serious and require direct intervention. The first is poor concentration (or gifted daydreaming). If your mind wanders each time you pick up a textbook, the cure is ruthless. Study in ten-minute sessions. Read the chapter one subsection at a time. Turn the heading into a question and when you find the answer, write it down. Hold yourself accountable for every minute you are looking at the page. If you have to stand up and hold the book, do so. After each ten-minute session, test yourself on the material. Daydreaming is a habit; so is concentration. Get in the habit of concentrating when you are looking at a text. Each time you realize that you are daydreaming, pull your mind back to the information on the page.
      The second kind of reading difficulty is lack of a collegiate vocabulary. If every tenth word in your freshman English reader is unfamiliar, you need to do specific vocabulary development. The fastest method is to go to the campus learning lab and study Greek and Latin roots and prefixes. Another is to keep a dictionary with you at all times and use it. Make vocabulary cards, write sentences using new words, and become a wordsmith, a craftsman with language. Reading will greatly aid your vocabulary development. Persistence is the key; if you can truly learn one new word each day, your vocabulary will grow as your intellectual abilities grow.
      A third kind of reading difficulty occurs when students have problems with understanding the basic content of the text. If you try to read and seem to miss the main points the professor and other students talk about, then find a campus source that will assess your reading skills. There may be a learning or reading lab, an education department, a counseling center. This is not the time to be shy; reading difficulties can be overcome, but you will need the help of specialists.
Back To Top
Problem Solving

      As mentioned earlier, the first type of study was learning from your textbook. A second type is solving problems for courses such as math, statistics, accounting, physics. Attempt the homework as soon after class as possible (you will remember more). As you are practicing a procedure for solving a problem, talk aloud about what you are doing and why. Better still, write down what you are doing and why. When you get stuck, take a short break and try again. If you stay stuck, get help from your professor or a classmate or a tutor in one of the learning labs. Persistence is the key to success. A good way to ensure that you understand--rather than just remember--the process is to explain it to someone else. An emergency technique, if math is extremely difficult for you, is to begin by working unassigned problems for which you have the answers, to verify that you understand the procedure.
Back To Top
Study Groups

      A third type of study is the study group. Groups can be either opportunities or dangers. The dangers are obvious: you may visit instead of learn; your partners may give you wrong information; you may spend all your time teaching them and not learning anything new; your group may contain a leech who cannot contribute but clings to others. However, the opportunities are equally great. Students in effective groups combine their skills and knowledge as well as motivate each other to greater accomplishments.
      If you want to establish an effective study group, choose two other students who share your desire for success (three is the magic number for a group). Set a specific time, place, and topic. A good place is the library. Expect everyone to have completed the initial study of the material and to bring questions to the group. Compare notes from the lecture across the group. Focus the discussion on two points: the unanswered questions about the material from the lecture and the reading and the predicted questions for the next test.
      A lively, competitive interaction in a group will help everyone's learning. Debate the issues or quiz each other. Assign topics and let each person "teach" for five minutes. If you have been unwise enough to choose a lazy person or a leech, eject him or her from the group. Older returning students are good additions to a group because they are usually highly motivated and willing to work hard.
      Studying is not just reading and memorizing, although it encompasses both. Studying is the active learning of academic ideas and information. It is the work of a student. Most study skills books tell students to study two hours for every hour of class. Not a bad average, but it is an average. Some courses will require four hours for every hour of class and some will require thirty minutes. The two-for-one average will usually yield average grades. Yes, unlike high school, it takes effort even to make Cs. As and Bs come much harder.
      Studying is like any job. With time and effort and attention, you can learn to do it well. Practice in studying will allow you to master the most powerful skill in the human arsenal: the ability to concentrate.
Back To Top
Exercises

Exercise: Concentration

  1. Complete the attached checklists in order to be aware of distractions.
  2. Try this plan for reducing internal distractions and increasing the amount of time you can read productively:
    1. Begin with a relatively easy assignment as a "warm-up." Divide the assignment into three or four segments.
    2. Read the first segment. When your attention starts drifting, stop, turn away from the book, note the number of paragraphs you were able to read with concentration. Briefly review those paragraphs and remind yourself of the key points, then continue reading this first segment. Repeat this process as often as necessary until you complete the segment.
    3. When you finish the first segment, note the average number of paragraphs you were able to read with concentration. If your average was, say, four, set a goal of six for the next segment.
    4. Skim the next segment and mark the end of the passage you hope to read without distraction.
    5. Repeat step (b) until you have worked through the second segment.
    6. Work through the entire assignment using this technique.
  3. Describe aloud or write the main content of the assignment you just read.
  4. Take a short relaxing break, then turn to a more challenging assignment, using the same technique.

Exercise: Checklist for External Distractions

1. Describe the place where you are studying:
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________


Study Area
Description
How to Improve It
Amount of space








Furniture








Lighting








Temperature








Noise








Visual distraction








Other








Exercise: Checklist for Internal Distractions

1. Describe your present mental state:
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________


Internal Distractions
Description
How to Improve/Cope
Reations to noise








Fatigue








Daydreaming








Lack of interest in subject








Anxiety about scope of task








Personal problems








Other











*From De Sellers, "How to Study," in Jeffrey Gordon, The University in Your Life (McGraw-Hill, 1996). Copyright ?1996 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  

Return to the top of this page

출처 : http://apps.csom.umn.edu/Nachtsheim/5th/support/study.htm#top

'펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Study :: 2006.12.11 15:33 펌글

How to Perform Better on Tests



Tests are an integral part of American life. Our society uses tests (and contests) to sort and categorize us. Whether it is the SAT or an algebra test, a basic skills test or a history exam, the CPA exam or a kindergarten reading readiness test, tests stand at the gateway of opportunity. Tests should accurately reflect our knowledge of particular subjects or predict our ability to perform in future circumstances, and sometimes they do. Tests designed by teachers vary greatly in quality; some are thorough and fair, others seem capricious and thoughtless.
      As students enter each new level of competition, they usually experience the apprehension of the unknown, the shock of higher standards, and the sense of inadequate preparation. Classic examples of this phenomenon occur each fall on American college campuses as freshmen face their first exams. Their frequent frenetic attempts--at preparation by cramming all night and worrying endlessly--testify to their earnestness but rarely help them perform.
      Students commonly have ambivalent feelings about tests. Anxiety, avoidance, and anger can occur beforehand, while celebration, remorse, and relief can be the aftermath. All are powerful emotions that can directly affect your sense of well-being and self-esteem. How can you harness these emotional engines to help you accomplish your college goals? The first step is to understand the basic nature of college tests; the second is to master a test preparation method that counteracts avoidance; and the third is to learn how to perform a test to the best of your ability and knowledge.
Back To Top
The Nature of College Tests

      College tests, especially freshman level, should effectively sample your knowledge of the subject you are studying. Whatever the structure, a test should be balanced along two dimensions. The first is the breadth of content covered in class lecture/discussion and out-of-class study. Your first task is to determine the range of material each professor expects you to master for the test. Three methods may help: ask the professor directly, ask former students, and determine if your teacher puts old tests on file at the library or departmental office. The second dimension is somewhat more difficult to describe. It is the level of performance required of you. Will you simply have to regurgitate facts and definitions or merely recognize something that has been mentioned in lectures or in the text? This level (Memory) is the lowest and resembles most high school learning. Although it occurs in college, it will rapidly decrease after the freshman year. The second level of performance occurs when you understand an idea or the significance of an example. Test questions at this level (Understanding) may be worded differently from the initial presentation of the material. When you are asked to use an idea or a process, especially in a new situation, that level is Use. The fourth level is the most important, and the most difficult, for freshmen. It is the demonstration of your intellectual ability to explain cause/effect relationships or the similarities/differences between two or more ideas/theories/events. This level (Analysis) requires different preparation and performance strategies than the other three levels. Another performance level (Creation) usually occurs for freshmen only in the original construction of a theme or speech.1
Back To Top
Test Preparation

      There is a reasonable, logical, and effective method of test preparation. The key point is deceptively simple--you must learn to think like a teacher, not a student, and the first step is the recognition of the difference between learning through study and preparation for performance. Learning occurs in repeated practice. Your efforts should focus on understanding the material and remembering key points or definitions. All initial learning should be completed at least 48 hours before the test. That revolutionary concept is the foundation of the preparation phase.
      Preparation begins with an analysis of the domain of the test. Assemble your class notes, texts, handouts, and so on. List all the topics you believe the professor might use for test questions. It is crucial that your list is complete so take the time needed. Look over your list. Can you group any items together? Is there a logical progression (linking) of topics? What organization of topics did your professor use? Is it the same as in the text? The final result of your reflection should be an exhaustive list of topics. Now look at the topics. Mark with an asterisk the ones that seem most likely to occur on the test. (Most professors give strong clues through repetition and emphasis.) Your predictive abilities will improve with practice.
      This stage of preparation is not yet complete. Look at your list of topics, the domain, and beside each one write your estimate of the level (Memory, Understanding, Use, Analysis) at which you will be asked to perform for that topic. Be careful and cautious. How many clues has your professor given? Is he or she concerned with details or ideas, tracing cause/effect relationships, identifying and defining terms? Essay exams are almost always at the Analysis level; problem-solving exams or case studies at the Use level. Multiple-choice exams are deceptive, for students assume they are at the Memory level, and they can be. But they can also test the other three levels.
      The foregoing analysis of domain should take 30--45 minutes. Take a break, then return to construct your plan. As you look at each topic and your prediction of performance level, do an inventory. What are the gaps between your learning and your ability to perform at the predicted level? The simplest method is to test yourself. Write a list of terms or events and define them; construct an essay question and answer it. If you have a study guide for the text, answer the practice questions. What is your current performance level?
      Once you have ascertained your current level, you will begin to realize what you must do to be ready to perform for the test. This is the "cramming" stage. You must master the material and hold it in your mind in an organized format so that you can access it for the test. There are several basic principles to successful cramming. First, try to practice performing the material at the level you predicted. For Memory, practice recitation until your recall is reliable. For Understanding, explain concepts or the significance of examples aloud, as if you were teaching someone else. For Use, especially in math, statistics, accounting, and economics, solve problems. Do not simply review those you have already worked; try to combine problems in new ways. For Analysis, try to predict questions that compare and contrast larger amounts of information. Use organizational tools like charts, graphs, mindmaps, outlines. Create simple matrices that allow you to organize comparative information. One dimension lists the topics; the other lists characteristics (see table, below).
      As each stage of preparation intensifies, you will find you are condensing the material, picking significant ideas or facts around which you can cluster other information. Each successive practice furthers the selection process; you begin to feel mastery over the material. This condensation process is desirable, for your personal organization of the material will allow you to answer questions even if they are not phrased in the same way you have worded your practice question. One hint: study more than you believe necessary.

Civil War: Battles in Chronological Order
First Battle of Bull Run Battle of Shiloh Battle of Antietam Battle of Gettysburg
Date

       
Location

       
Leaders

       
Causes

       
Winner

       
Effects

       

Back To Top
Taking the Test

      There are practical issues to address as the test approaches. Get some sleep, but get up early enough to spend one hour in a final review session. Be sure to take whatever supplies are necessary: blue book, answer sheets, watch, pens, pencils. Go to class about ten minutes early, but do not listen to the anxious conversations among your classmates. Instead, go over your review sheet and practice recalling the key information from your memory.
      When the test is distributed, your performance begins. Read the test, paying special attention to the directions, and notice the value of each section. Determine how you will allocate your time. Begin with the section that you feel most confident with. Read each question carefully and try to ascertain what your professor wants to know. If you do not understand a question, approach him or her and ask, "Does this question mean _____ or ______?" Do not ask "What does this question mean?" Work at a calm, measured pace, but keep your eye on the time. Do not hurry.

Some quick tips:
True/false Be wary of absolute words (all, always, must, and so on). Such terms often make statements false.
Multiple-choice Read the stem (first part) of the question with each alternative. Read all before choosing. If you are not sure of an answer, but can eliminate one or two choices, guess.
Definition or short answer Give several sentences and an example.
Essay Write a thesis statement that acknowledges the entire question and shows the main idea and structure of your answer (a brief outline will help you organize your answer). If you run out of time, outline the remainder of your essay.


      After you have completed the exam, resist the temptation to turn it in and escape. There are several strategies that may add points to your score. Verify that you have answered all the required questions and, if you are using a machine-scored sheet, that your answers are in the correct rows and columns. Be cautious about changing your answers. Sometimes your performance will improve during the test and changing your answers will garner points. However, last-minute anxieties may persuade you to change a correct answer. If you generally gain points when you change answers, then do so. The opposite is good advice if you frequently lose points. Reread your essay answers and make any necessary grammatical or spelling corrections. Insert additional material.
      It can be quite normal to become anxious during a test. If that happens, simply stop and take a deep breath. Remind yourself that you have prepared and then focus on the next question. The most effective stress management technique is to keep your attention on performing, not on the results of your performance. If your thoughts continue to spin away from the test, then sit quietly for a few moments with your eyes closed. Try to physically relax by breathing deeply. Say the same things to yourself that you would say to a friend, for example, "I will answer one question at a time," "I have prepared for this exam," and so on.
Back To Top
Analysis of Performance

      A powerful technique to improve your second test scores is a thorough analysis of your first performance. Allow yourself the appropriate emotional response to the results of your first test performance, then settle down to do a thoughtful evaluation of the strategies you used. First, reflect over your preparation. Did you choose the right topics and levels? Did you study enough or in the most productive manner? During your performance, did you use time wisely? Did you follow directions? Did guessing help or hurt your performance? How well did you manage stress? What changes should you make in either preparation or performance?
      Two more intensive strategies may be helpful. If you are confused about your performance on the test questions you missed and believe you understood the material but could not show that, make an appointment with your professor to carefully review those questions. Take your class notes and the text with you and describe your preparation process. Your teacher is the best source of help for improving your performance. If stress played a major role in hurting your performance, then a visit to your campus counseling center can help you to learn how to manage stress so that it will not interfere with your performance.
      Learning to prepare and perform in the spotlight of college tests is an important skill, which you will carry with you into professional life. A vital part of that process is a decision that you may have already made. That decision is your commitment to a personal code of honor. In other words, is the work that you claim to be your work really yours? Cheating is theft, theft of another's knowledge, and the gravest punishment is the loss of personal honor, not getting caught. If you have already made that decision to be honorable, good. If not, please consider it carefully, for the implications are vast.

Endnote

1. This concept of vertical dimension is based on B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

Exercise: Test Preparation

  1. Date of test:______________
  2. Course:______________
  3. Time allowed for this test:______________
  4. Complete the chart below:
Material to be covered on exam Completed/ready to review Incomplete and time needed to complete
Chapters in text

Outside reading

Class notes

Other




*From De Sellers, "How to Study," in Jeffrey Gordon, The University in Your Life (McGraw-Hill, 1996). Copyright ?1996 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  

Return to the top of this page

출처 : http://apps.csom.umn.edu/Nachtsheim/5th/support/tests.htm#top

'펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11

How to Manage Your Time



      Time is the great equalizer. Whether you are smart or dumb, ugly or beautiful, you have the same 168 hours each week that everyone else has. How you spend that valuable commodity determines the quality of your life just as surely as if you walked into a department store and ordered it. Time is more precious than any possession.
      You have probably already noticed that time passes more quickly for you than it once did. Those endless hours and days of childhood slip away by adolescence, and adulthood brings an ever increasing acceleration. Most college freshmen fall prey to the conviction that they have enough time to do everything, enough time to forgo planning. A dangerous self-deception. One of the purposes of college is to determine which people can control their time in order to meet their goals. Think about it. Most blue-collar or pink-collar jobs require employees to punch a time clock. The employer structures the time and the tasks. But college graduates who have professional jobs structure their own time and often the tasks as well. A hidden requirement for success in college and in the professional world is the desire and the ability to use time wisely. Such a skill is not instantly conferred on graduation, but it is slowly and painfully constructed throughout the college years.
      Most students shudder at the thought of controlling their time; they envision a jail of schedules and charts that would not allow them to feel free. The irony of that prejudice is that good time management is a key--a key to achieving goals and enjoying life. The beginning is simple, a promise to yourself to be honest, and the first stage is the willingness to differentiate among fantasies, dreams, and goals.
      I may fantasize that I am a rock star, adored by millions, or I may dream that upon graduation from college I will acquire a glamorous job with a large salary. This latter dream usually involves rewards but not the work itself. Fantasies and dreams are alike in that they are always effortless. No work, no struggle, but instantaneous. The magic of Hollywood. Fantasies are impossible; dreams are possible, but unlikely. Fantasies and dreams help us to escape. They serve no other purpose. Escape can be good entertainment, but goals are the markers on the road of accomplishment.
Back To Top
Set Goals

      Goals are those accomplishments that we deliberately set out to achieve. They may be small and simple: I'll do the dishes tonight. Or they may be large, complex, and long term: I want to enjoy my work and do it well, or I want to create a family based on love and respect. We may choose goals in every aspect of our lives: personal, social, academic, occupational, athletic, spiritual. A broad goal, such as good health, may spawn many smaller goals, such as maintaining a regular exercise schedule, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular medical checkups. Some goals are behaviors we want to decrease or increase or maintain.
      New Year's resolutions -- those wild promises we make to ourselves after the indulgences of the holidays--are rarely kept, for we try to change too much too quickly. The truth of the matter is that if we want to change a behavior permanently we usually have to change it slowly. Changing a behavior requires some discipline, but not the amount most people imagine. The way to change a behavior slowly is to make a small promise to ourselves, keep it, and reward ourselves. A typical example would be a freshman who has decided to attend his 8 A.M. class the next day. He knows he needs to go to class to pass, so he promises himself that he will go to sleep by midnight. He sets the alarm for 7 A.M. and places it across the room. When it goes off, he reminds himself of his promise and why it is important. As he's getting ready, he compliments himself on his behavior and tells himself that going to class is important.
      How we spend the minutes and hours of our days determines what we accomplish. Thinking about studying will not help our grades. Only studying does. Talking about our weight while we are eating pizza does not cause weight loss. Exercise and a sensible diet will control our weight. Those links from behaviors to accomplishments to goals are crucial. Do our behaviors and accomplishments lead us to our goals or away from them?
      Most freshmen would like a satisfying collegiate experience that includes good grades and a social life that is fun and emotionally satisfying. They do not enjoy great amounts of stress. Students can often have other goals about work, family, sports. If your current behaviors will not lead you to your goals, try the following three steps for two weeks. This time management system is not a jail.
      Write down three goals you want to accomplish this semester. You may want a 3.0, a date with the redhead in your math class, or a better relationship with your roommate. Your goal may be large or small. If your life seems out of control right now, write down one goal for this week. What will you have to do to accomplish that goal?
Back To Top
Key Behavior

      Isolate the key behaviors for your goals. Key academic behaviors include going to class, paying attention and taking notes, reading the assignments when they are assigned, keeping an academic calendar with all tests noted. Key financial behaviors include writing down every check in the register (and keeping a running balance), planning a weekly budget, paying bills on time. Key personal behaviors include handling business details such as insurance and car inspections promptly, keeping your personal space neat, getting adequate sleep.
      We lie to ourselves about key behaviors. They are often boring and mundane, and we want to delay them. Actually, we want someone else to do them. We want them to disappear. So we lie; we say that we will do it later, after the party or the movie. Tomorrow. Those lies usually result in late papers (lower grades), late payments (penalties), lower self-esteem. The more lies, the greater the amount of chaos.
      Those lies are part of a larger behavior pattern called procrastination. We may procrastinate in just one area of our life such as studying or that pattern may permeate the entirety of our life. Procrastination occurs when we deliberately choose to delay or omit a behavior that we believe we should do. The reasons are legion. The most common cause of procrastination is our unwillingness to recognize and to pay the "price tag" for an outcome we say we want. An example would be that we want an A on the next history test, but the price tag is that we have to read and study the chapters (15 hours), attend class for those five weeks (15 hours), participate in a study group (10 hours), and study individually (8 hours). Forty-eight hours for one test! How much do we really want that A? And then there is no guarantee that we will make it; that 48 hours just gives us the opportunity to achieve that grade. Any goal can be subjected to that kind of scrutiny. Price tags are usually much higher than we want to admit. We always look for a bargain; witness the current spate of television ads about weight loss without effort or denial.
      There are more serious causes of procrastination. We may be so overcommitted that exhaustion engulfs us. We may be so bound to the conviction that what we do should be perfect that we are afraid to start, for whatever we accomplish it will not be perfect. We may be rebellious, even to the extent of rebelling against ourselves and our own goals. We may be afraid to succeed because our families or significant others have told us we are failures and we believe them. We may feel more comfortable with failure than with success. We may be depressed emotionally and feel so "dragged out" that we cannot start any new behavior. We may be lazy and simply unwilling to work.
      If procrastination is a characteristic of your life and you dislike the consequences of it, then take some time to reflect on why you do it. The suggestions that follow in this essay will help you overcome a mild case of procrastination, but if your behavior stems from serious causes and is engulfing your life, then seek professional help through your campus counseling center. Procrastination is a learned behavior; you can learn not to do it. You can learn to set your goals, plan your actions, and accomplish those actions in a timely manner.
      If you want to change how you manage your own behaviors, then select a goal that is important to you. Write down the key behaviors for that goal. Which ones are you currently doing? Which key behavior would you like to change? Focus on it. What can you do to increase the likelihood you will do that behavior?
Back To Top
Make a Plan

      Make a plan to make that key behavior a habit. When a key behavior becomes a habit (a behavior we don't have to think about), we benefit. We are doing the right thing without a struggle.
      Imagine a student in a freshman math class. She wants to make at least a B and realizes that a key behavior is completing the homework problems on time. Her class is Tuesday--Thursday, and she often does her homework late on Monday and Wednesday evenings. By that time, she has forgotten what went on in class, and the problems seem overwhelmingly difficult. Two key behaviors for her goal would be to do the homework as soon as it is assigned and then review it before class. Her plan to make those behaviors habits is simple: On Tuesdays and Thursdays after history, she walks to the library and picks a quiet place to study. (She has set the video cassette recorder to record her favorite soap.) It has only been two hours since the math class, so she still remembers what went on in class. She starts working on the homework problems. If she gets confused or stuck, she takes a short break and then attempts the problem again. If she still cannot do it, she leaves it and attempts other problems. After working on several others, she again attempts the confusing one(s). If she's successful, she completes her work and goes home. If there are unsolved problems, she goes to one of the campus learning labs and requests help. Several days later, she takes thirty minutes before math class to look over the problems and quickly work one or two. She's ready for class. After two weeks, it's automatic for her to go to the library after history class. The habit is in place.
      Two habits that can transform the quality of your life are simple and powerful. When something needs to be done, DO IT. Do it right away. Don't put it off. You will just think about it and feel guilty. The longer you delay, the guiltier you will feel. Whether it is getting out of bed and getting cleaned up or picking up the trash or reading the chapter--just do it.
      Give yourself ten minutes. If you get up ten minutes earlier in the morning, you won't have to rush. If you leave for class or an appointment ten minutes earlier, you arrive on time, regardless of traffic or parking. That extra ten minutes reduces stress, and it also reduces the likelihood that you will make a mistake because you are hurrying. That extra ten minutes adds quality to your life.
      Being a successful college student is a full-time job. Treat it like a job. If you are going to miss a class, call your professor in advance, just as you would an employer. If you have an assignment, do it; that assignment is your work, as is learning in class. Tests and papers are how you demonstrate whether you have been doing your job. Your professors are your supervisors. They evaluate your performance, and your performance record is your academic transcript. Your transcript reflects your cumulative performance and is an accurate indicator of how well you have mastered the use of time. When you master time, then you are a professional.
Back To Top
Exercise

Exercise: Controlling Procrastination

Check off the areas where you tend to procrastinate:

Household
_____  daily chores (dishes, laundry)
_____  small repairs and home projects
_____  large home projects
_____  yard care and gardening
_____  phoning a repair service
_____  returning merchandise
_____  paying bills
_____  shopping for groceries
_____  running errands for others
_____  other__________

Work
_____  being on time
_____  being on time for appointments
_____  making calls
_____  decision making
_____  paperwork
_____  reports
_____  confronting someone in regard to a problem
_____  paying a compliment
_____  implementing new ideas
_____  billing
_____  requesting a raise or promotion
_____  arranging a meeting with your supervisor
_____  reading current literature
_____  looking for a new job
_____  plotting a direction for your career
_____  other__________

School
_____  going to classes
_____  doing daily assignments
_____  doing required reading
_____  studying for exams
_____  writing term papers
_____  having a conference with a professor
_____  applying to graduate or professional school
_____  registering
_____  paying tuition and fees
_____  attending to degree requirements
_____  returning books to library
_____  inquiring about classes for next term
_____  other__________

Social Relationships
_____  phoning friends
_____  calling on friends
_____  corresponding
_____  inviting friends to your home
_____  calling writing relatives
_____  visiting relatives
_____  asking someone out
_____  planning recreational or social activities with others
_____  expressing appreciation
_____  sending thank-you notes
_____  sending cards or gifts
_____  having parties
_____  being on time for recreational or social activities
_____  asking for help
_____  confronting a friend with regard to a problem
_____  ending a stagnant relationship
_____  other__________

Finances
_____  filing income tax forms on time
_____  organizing bills, receipts
_____  keeping tax records
_____  consulting with an accountant
_____  budgeting
_____  phoning the bank about discrepancies
_____  paying fines
_____  paying back loans
_____  collecting money from debtors
_____  paying car insurance
_____  balancing checkbook
_____  paying bills
_____  other__________


*From De Sellers, "How to Study," in Jeffrey Gordon, The University in Your Life (McGraw-Hill, 1996). Copyright ?1996 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  

Return to the top of this page

출처 : http://apps.csom.umn.edu/Nachtsheim/5th/support/time.htm#top

'펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11

How to Learn in Class



      In four years of college you will spend almost two thousand hours in classrooms listening to lectures and participating in class discussions. If you master the skill of learning in class, not only will you be more successful academically, but your college experience will be much less stressful because studying out of class will be more effective.
      It is easy to spot students who do not know how to learn in class. Pretend you are from another century or planet and watch a typical American college freshman class. How many students dash in moments before the professor? wander in ten or fifteen minutes late? head toward the back of the room, the farther from the professor the better? forget their notebooks or have to borrow a pen? sink gratefully into a desk and are immediately asleep? have hangovers so obvious that they could be wearing a sign? read textbooks for other courses? talk with the person sitting next to them? are masters at daydreaming? or create elaborate doodles instead of notes?
      Make no mistake. The purpose of a college class is to advance your learning in that course. The ideas that are presented, explained, and developed are often not duplicated in the text. When you learn what you should in class, your study time can then focus on the outside readings and exercises instead of on the material you should have already mastered in class.
      You may want to examine the following sets of behaviors, which characterize successful students. You will notice that many of these behaviors occur outside of class (before and after) in order that your learning in class be powerful.
Back To Top
Be Prepared

      The first set of behaviors can be represented by the Boy Scout motto Be Prepared. Preparation begins the day before class. Are any assignments due? If so, do them. Read or at least skim the assigned reading; this strategy is crucial for it will prepare you to take competent class notes. More about this later. Become familiar with the main topics and new vocabulary and at least look at charts and graphs. Be sure to quickly skim chapter summaries.
      Organize your life and your schedule to arrive at class five to ten minutes early in a relatively good physical state (enough sleep, breakfast, no speeding tickets, no hangovers). You may have to do serious surgery on your social life to accomplish such a goal, but the rewards are equally serious. If you are hungry, sleepy, or hungover, your chances of learning in class are nil. Your body is there; your mind is elsewhere. Make believe that class is a job; you have to show up ready and able to work.
      Whether you use a spiral or a looseleaf binder, your notebook should contain a pocket for handouts and returned tests, a place to insert the syllabus, and enough paper to write on only one side of the page. You may use one notebook for each class or group, Monday--Wednesday--Friday classes in one and Tuesday--Thursday classes in another. You may also want to put enough bluebooks and Scantrons in a notebook pocket for the entire semester. Take several pens (pencil marks fade by semester's end). Some professors lecture from the text; if yours does, take your book to class and make notes directly in it.
      The last step in preparedness comes in the five minutes preceding class. Look back over the notes from the last meeting. What were the major ideas? How do they connect to the reading for today? This intellectual warm-up is analogous to the stretching an athlete does before he or she performs. In psychological terms, this rapid review brings to your conscious mind the ideas and facts you learned in the last class and stored in your memory.
Back To Top
Be Active

      Be Active is the motto of the second set of behaviors; it offers a guideline for your approach in the classroom. Class learning is more than simply transcribing the professor's notes into your study book. It is more than remembering the stories and jokes the professor uses as illustrations and forgetting the main ideas. Your learning strategies should vary in lecture, discussion, and problem-solving classes.
      In lecture classes, you create study notes that, when combined with your outside readings, should constitute your learning resources. Those notes should not replicate the book, but instead they should comprise a record of the main points of the lecture (there are usually five or six), relevant facts to support those points, and explanations of difficult ideas. Listen for concepts and facts you did not find in the readings.
      When you begin to take lecture notes, think about what you are trying to accomplish. What do you want to learn? How will you be tested? How much do you already know about the subject? How easy is it for you to learn in this subject? Search for the main ideas of the lecture by carefully watching your professor. Your professor may write an outline on the board, or make introductory comments during the first moments of class, or repeat an idea several times, or raise her/his voice, or gesture, or use words like the main point, most importantly, in summary. Any of these cues can signal a main point.
      Usually you will capture a main point in a sentence or phrase. Writing the concepts in your own words helps you understand them. If you simply copy the professor's words without understanding them, they will be useless to you later. Putting the key ideas in your own words increases the likelihood that you understand them. When you understand the material, you will better remember it.
      Record definitions, facts, opinions that seem relevant. Do not write down everything the professor says; instead carefully select what you write. Here is where reading or skimming the text in the preparation stage helps. Do not spend all your time rewriting material that is in the text but do write down new material.
      Leave space between items. Number or organize whenever you can. Put a question mark when you get lost or confused and leave blank space (you can ask the professor for help after class or during office hours). Mark with an asterisk (*) items that you believe will be on the test. Remember that you are creating a study book; recopying takes too long, so create a readable page.
      The key to creating a useful set of lecture notes is thinking. Think about what is important in this material; think about what you need to learn; think about whether you are writing down the main points. Leave space for your own thoughts later.
      Discussion classes are often great fun, but students frequently leave class without any notes. That behavior is dangerous since we rarely remember concepts unless we write them down and go over them, even if we have been interested in the discussion. In this type of class, the professor usually summarizes a main point when the discussion ends. Listen for those summaries and record them. Discussion notes tend to be shorter, and they usually do not follow any particular structure. Ideas are important here, not details.
      The purpose of problem-solving classes is simple: class time is used to solve problems and to discuss the process of doing so. The strategy for taking good notes in such a class is to write down not only the problem but also the verbalization of the steps. The sequence of steps is crucial. Math, accounting, economics, finance, computer programming are all examples of problem-solving classes.
      Class is not over when the professor stops talking. The motto Be Thorough represents the behaviors that occur after class. As soon after class as is practical, edit your notes by filling in the blank spaces, numbering or labeling series of items, and marking important ideas. Meet with a friend to compare notes and skim the text quickly for connections to the lecture material. Determine that your notes are complete. If you have any questions, write them down and see the professor. This edit-and-review stage is crucial for powerful and permanent learning because we need several exposures to ideas and facts to learn them.
      Remember the two thousand hours. If you spend that time learning effectively, your outside study time can be much more productive.

Back To Top
Exercise

Exercise: A Checklist for Listening and Notetaking

Best
Class
Worse
Class
Before Class:
_____   _____  
  • Buy notebooks that will help you organize your work. (Recommendation: separate looseleaf or spiral notebooks for each course.)
  • _____   _____  
  • Quiz yourself over the previous lecture.
  • _____   _____  
  • Review reading assignments to bring to mind key ideas.
  • _____   _____  
  • Take action to improve physical and mental alertness.
  • _____   _____  
  • Quiet your mind to prepare to listen.

  • During Class:
    _____   _____  
  • Be attentive to the beginning of the lecture for possible review.
  • _____   _____  
  • Listen for the outline or agenda for the day's session.
  • _____   _____  
  • Avoid distractions.
  • _____   _____  
  • Write enough for notes to be meaningful to you later.
  • _____   _____  
  • Try to use a consistent form.
  • _____   _____  
  • Listen for verbal cues (for example, "The point I have been making . . . , " "There are three arguments for this view, " "The first objection I want to consider . . . ").
  • _____   _____  
  • Listen to class discussion.
  • _____   _____  
  • Include in notes the instructor's summary of important points in the discussion.

  • After Class:
    _____   _____  
  • Clear up points of confusion by talking with lecturer or classmates.
  • _____   _____  
  • Use text to fill in missing points or to clarify doubts.
  • _____   _____  
  • Edit notes as soon as possible.
  • _____   _____  
  • Jot down in margins the notes of your own reflections and ideas.
  • _____   _____  
  • Do foreign language and math assignments while the material is still fresh.

  • Periodically:
    _____   _____  
  • Review your notes.
  • _____   _____  
  • Jot down brief cues for recall,then use them to quiz yourself.
  • _____   _____  
  • Be alert to developing themes.
  • _____   _____  
  • Create likely test questions and answer them.


  • *From De Sellers, "How to Learn in Class," in Jeffrey Gordon, The University in Your Life (McGraw-Hill, 1996). Copyright ?1996 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Return to the top of this page

    출처 : http://apps.csom.umn.edu/Nachtsheim/5th/support/learn.htm#top

    '펌글' 카테고리의 다른 글

    싸이언 폰을 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
    m4650이랑 m4655를 무선 모뎀으로 사용하기  (0) 2008.08.21
    How to Study  (0) 2006.12.11
    How to Perform Better on Tests  (0) 2006.12.11
    How to Manage Your Time  (0) 2006.12.11
    How to Learn in Class  (0) 2006.12.11
    How to Learn in Class :: 2006.12.11 15:30 펌글
    openclose